Carboxyl (lipoic acid) is covalently bound to the metal surface with a dithiol which forms a strong, stable bond to the metal surface. The acid provides a highly negatively charged surface.
BioPure materials are high quality, unagglomerated, and monodisperse nanoparticles. Extensively purified and provided sterile with low endotoxin. Ideal for in-vivo and in-vitro studies and medical applications.